Or How We Can Stop Worrying about our Cities, help Regenerate Gaia, and Love the Three Most Precious Things We Have:

Our Time, Health & the Planet (while helping Melbourne regain its “World’s Most Livable City” crown and Sydney stay in the race!)

An Express A to B that complements the car and suburbs, improves on the Boring Company model with public-private partnership distributed personal, mass rapid transit, being far cheaper, faster and less disruptive to build and maintain; while generating 5 revenue streams for PPP-surplus spending on key Doughnut Economy environmental and social priorities.

“The Station Comes to You…along a new renewables-dedicated, optimally distributed, fractal geometry, integrated people, food, goods, data and green electrons-moving single-platform network…

…via a multi-modal urban flow-distribution, rapid transit-green electricity transmission & storage machine to de-carbonise, de-congest, de-pollute, de-heat, de-idle, de-hazard & re-justice our Cities by igniting a productivity and wellbeing revolution, ASAP.”

A City Greening, Multi-Modal Urban Distribution Network for the 21st Century

“The constructal law is the statement that for a flow system to persist in time it must evolve in such a way that it provides easier access to its currents.
This is the law of configuration generation, or the law of design.”

Adrian Bejan

“Good Design is the Complex rendered Simply, via #SynPlexity”

Nigel Reading

“Life is Always Right…”

Le Corbusier (via Simon Alford, RIBA President 2022)

Le Solei — John Olsen 1965

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0

Charles Darwin’s Eureka Evolution Sketch

As published in Fifth Estate, and shared at #SmartEnergy2021 in Sydney, Australia, we present a post-CoVid19 socially-distanced, Green New Deal, Single-Platform, Multi-Modal, Renewables-powered, Urban Light-Active-AV Transit & Farming, Biomimetic, City-optimising personal rapid transit Network concept, as a proposed specialist consultant-led Feasibility Study for Premium Serially Shared Autonomous Electric Vehicles (SAEVs); as an optimal Desire Line for the Fourth Industrial Revolution that exemplifies the vital, balanced environmental-social priorities of the Doughnut Economy#MetaLoop.

How SyPlexity, single platform, multi-modal, biomimetic design yields higher societal productivity & revenues

It addresses several wicked-problems, while being green-bond financed (with timely ROI, in swiftly paying for itself with 5 revenue-streams); and enables many other societally-useful things in mitigating the UN-declared Climate Emergency to de-carbonise, de-congest, de-heat, de-idle & de-pollute our cities, most easily and rapidly.

This is because not only does it move people, goods and food most easily, it also moves green electrons as a new, stand-alone renewables-dedicated grid that will help mitigate current grid imbalances of curtailment, spillage and distributed storage by acting as an Actual meets Virtual Power Plant with blockchain energy trading to address the infamous “duck-curve” conundrum that is retarding the speedy uptake of renewable/non-fossil energy to exclusively power our cities, in meeting the COP26 NetZero 2050 challenge.

It also strives to incorporate Circular, Regenerative Economy principles in recycling and upcycling the waste of our cities back into them via the physical embodiment of materials used in the MetaLoop superstructure.
It’s as circular as possible, so for example, we envisage using recycled ocean plastic for the bridge walkways and cycleway surfaces, within the MetaPod PRT vehicles used, in various fixtures and fittings like railings and light diffusers, et al; and recycled steel & aluminum, plus engineered timber - for the biomimetic, Frei Otto-informed superstructure bridges and poles that carry the transiting people, goods, data and green energy that MetaLoop optimally transports.

A Swiss Army Knife, Smart Phone-analogous, Urban resource-energy Transit Single Platform with Multiple Modes; to Decarbonise & Decongest our Cities to Net Zero by 2050
Aerotropolis Sydney Bradfield — HyperLoop Trunk, MetaLoop Branches at Nancy-Bird Walton Airport
Lake Cakora, NSW — A Distributed Flow System with ideal Asynsis geometry-Form, sculpted by optimal Constructal temporal-Flows, a key ecomimetic inspiration behind the MetaLoop network design

As shared with & by Mckinsey Mobility’s lead Mobility Consultant and Australia’s leading Renewable energy power purchasing agreement project manager, Jonathan Prendergast as an urban transit solution that best addresses several wicked problems at once.

Design Consultant partners: Asynsis Architecture + Design, Caldis Cook Group, Morrison Design Partnership, Erbas, Environmental Partnership, ihD, TILT, Buro Happold.

Research partners: University of New South Wales Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Built Environment faculties, Business Renewables Centre’s Monica Richter and the DesignThinkersGroup’s Mark Watson.

Leading global Mobility Manufacturer, Blockchain energy trading and Capital Investment partners involvement subject to active public-private-partnership negotiation.

With MIT-trained Professor Adrian Bejan of Duke University, discoverer of the Constructal law of design in nature and culture, Franklin Institute Laureate 2018, we further propose MetaLoop to the new Biden-Harris administration, since it makes perfect sense in terms of a long-term, sustained infrastructure roll-out, to continue and perpetuate the building retrofits, wind and solar required for America attaining Net Zero Carbon by 2050, as proposed in the Princeton NetZero America plan, as shared further into this post.

It’s also crucial in our view, to provide dignified well-paying jobs to the American working class — we’ve just seen the consequences of worsening inequality when a criminal sociopath, demagogue attempts to cynically leverage these divisions in US society to usurp the Constitution with attempted dictatorial powers.

So yes, hierarchy is natural and Constructal, but it must also be a mediated hierarchy to preserve social cohesion, (as we attempt to do in Australia, Canada, the EU-UK and Scandinavia — with a government-mediated market, to better effect than hitherto, in the US; which is still a neo-liberal, hyper-capitalist economy with minimal economic protections).

“Hannah Arendt described fascism as the temporary alliance of the elite and the mob, and the only thing that ever defeated that was the temporary alliance of the centre and the left — and that’s what we need.”

Paul Mason

Due to automation, financialisation and globalisation-outsourcing, without adequate safety-nets and proactive redistributive policies, the US has inadvertently created all the pre-conditions for a far-right, nativist, racist insurrection and effective fascist coup attempt in the very nation that spent so much blood and treasure as the arsenal of democracy, defeating global fascism in WWII; a coup which alarmingly, so very nearly succeeded.

So MetaLoop can help re-balance the US economy, and temper its febrile politics; by becoming a fundamental nation-(re)building network of infrastructure, as an integral part of a sustained, long-term, continuous Keynsian, FDR — New Deal emulation, as a regenerative rollout that Electrifies America, most affordably and sustainably.

This then becomes a sustained long-term national infrastructure roll-out and continuous regeneration process as the transit networks are expanded; maintained and upgraded (with city & population growth seeded by “baby-bonus” programs and selective immigration as practiced by Australia), thereby ensuring continuous, long term economic growth, productivity gains, international competitiveness, well-paying union-secured jobs and the consequent benefits of the multi-cultural, political-economic stability, social cohesion and wellness of exemplary developed nations like Australia, Canada and in Scandinavia.

Other recommendations for paradigm-shifting new energy-transit infrastructure that will help America Build Back Better, Easier and for Longer (all Constructal principles); are innovations such as Focus Fusion in the new clean, distributed-energy space.

Also, a massive national rollout of intercity HyperLoops at the scale of the FDR-Eisenhower public infrastructure works and national highways-freeways of the 30s and 50s (with warpower, Arsenal of Democracy — Rewring America, emergency compulsory land purchase-order effectiveness to compete effectively with China, ,which routinely wields such state-powers to decisively and effectively build its freeways and bullet-train networks and deal with the twin Covid & Climate crises), all powered by renewables, is required.

When both the HyperLoop-MetaLoop networks are also renewables-powered, the former will do for inter-city travel, what MetaLoop can also do for intra-city commuting, while simultaneously solving several other urban design wicked-problems.

Wind and solar renewables are great but are almost “fix and forget”, so low employment-maintaining once operational (unlike coal mines and oil & gas wells or conventional factory floor vehicle manufacturing).
While the design and construction of MetaLoop networks connected to the wind and solar is longer term employment-generating and requires constant expansion, maintenance and upgrading of its modular infrastructure — so they are less susceptible to automation/outsourcing as much of the assembly is in situ in very different urban conditions across our cities, and can also be mandated to not be out-sourced overseas by regulation and/or PPP financing structures — as further covered in this blog post.

So it’s exactly the kind of infrastructure that America so urgently needs right now.

Now what is the MetaLoop proposition?

A Carbon-abating, Physically-distancing, Mobility App-Store that slashes Urban Emissions in the crucial Energy, Transport, Building and Agricultural sectors.

A means to ignite a Productivity & Competitiveness Cleantech 4th Industrial Revolution while also simultaneously de-Congesting and de-Carbonising our Civilisation by being the fastest possible point to point rapid personal transit system that mimics nature’s optimised, living flow systems.

“If you fix Cities, you kind of fix the World” Tony Hsieh — CEO, Zappos

Overall, the inexorable shift from simple digitization (the Third Industrial Revolution) to innovation based on combinations of technologies that respond to both supply and demand (the Fourth Industrial Revolution), is forcing companies to reexamine the way they do business.

Klaus Schwab, Chair, World Economic Forum 2019

Filling an Adjacent Possible Multi-Modal Darwinian Niche in Urban Transit — Renewables — Urban Farming by Elevating above and along Existing Transport Corridors
A Uni-Modal MetaLoop analogue, SkyTran, via NASA

Western Sydney Unliveable by 2050

“Just planting a number of trees will not solve the problem,” Professor Santamouris says.

“We need to have much more radical solutions.”

Potential MetaLoop routes above existing Sydney Light Rail & Train Lines — Grimshaw study
Grimshaw Parramatta Road Study—current and future, also with Asynsis MetaLoop
MetaLoop Urban GrapeVine: Rain Collection-Misting-Greenery-Shading-Solar-Wind power, pedestrian and cyclist-scooter bridges, with MetaPods in both Elevated and At-Grade modes.
A Central to Parramatta Grapevine-Arbor: MetaLoop as Urban Lung Bronchi, as extruded Linear Trees — An extensive network of fractally-distributed , Green, Cool Walkable-Cyclable Parklet-Avenues for Urban Village-scale placemaking, with local shops, bars, restaurants, cafes & fountains for our Overheating Cities (with many thanks to Elizabeth Farrelly, author of “Killing Sydney” for her comments).

Now with the advent of the new US Biden-Harris administration, they plan to implement a massive Build Back Better — Green New Deal infrastructure program, which the likes of HyperLoop and MetaLoop networks can (looking at the industry sectors below), make crucial, substantial contributions to.

MetaLoop urban distribution networks can help decarbonise all these sectors, the only question is, “by how much?”

Here is Princeton Universities framework for achieving this ambitious, FDR-scale Keynsian agenda which the two charts immediately below come from:

The OECD refers to a MetaLoop-capable 5 Dimensional Build Back Better agenda to help the world recover from the twin Covid & Climate-induced economic crises we now face.

The OECD 5 Dimensions of Build Back Better — All MetaLoop Capabilities
The World’s First Metro from 1863 — London Underground — from Paddington to Farringdon
Clean, Green, Safe, Cool & Fast — Using the Third Dimension and Elevating Up
Safe, Dedicated Active Transit Routes
Classic London Overground Rolling Stock — design and construction by Smethwick & Cravens Chief Draftsman — Asynsis Design Director Nigel Reading’s Paternal Grandfather, Leonard Charles Reading; along with our friends, Foster & Partners’ Canary Wharf
London Transport: Vertical Transit Modes — MetaLoop doesn’t Excavate, it Elevates
Baker Street Station London on the World’s First Metro Line. Invented in London when it was the Largest City in the World and Suffering from massive Immigration and crippling Congestion — the solution? Use the Third Dimension and Excavate Down.

An Optimal City-Transforming, DeCongesting & DeCarbonising Solution that Tackles Numerous Wicked Problems in Demonstrating the Asynsis-Constructal #Form follows Flow Design ToE paradigm via a practical Light-Active-AV-EV, Socially-Distanced Transit, Renewables-powered, Urban Farming Multi-Modal transportation network that also gets you from an Urban A-B faster than any other Means.

How MetaLoop can connect Sydney’s new Tech Central District with Greater Sydney

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0

How can we De-Congest and De-Carbonise our Cities Most Rapidly, Affordably and Easily?
Imagine no more Traffic Jams, Traffic Lights, Stop Signs, Bus and Train Queues with the Archigram Walking, Plug-in City Realised
A CleanTech, 4th Industrial Revolution Multi-Modal, Single Platform 100% Renewables-powered, Light-Active Transit, Food, Water and Recycling Solution
At Least 5 Modes, with 5 Revenue Streams for a Rapid ROI
Transport & Mass Transit Expert Team Leadership with Arup — London Undergound East London Line reference design for London Overground GingerLine
MetaLoop Sites in Hong Kong & Australia
Solving Melbourne Road & Rail Congestion with Additional, Adjacent Possible, Optimally Distributed, Fractal, Biomimetic Transit Streams
Inefficient Radial vrs Optimally Efficient Fractal Biomimetic Distribution Networks
MetaLoop With Pods
From Hong Kong Spin to MetaLoop — A Single Platform, Multi-Modal Demonstration Project for Clean & Green Tech
Renewable Energy Generation Capability qualifies MetaLoop for Green Bond Financing and Power Purchasing Agreements (PPAs)
2030 Busines As Usual: More Congestion — Longer Travel Times, Not Less
McKinsey Predicts a MetaLoop-enabled 50% Seamless Mobility Scenario by 2030, likely higher with our filling the Third Dimension “Adjacent Possible” Niche: directly above our Existing Road and Rail Routes
Seamlessly Integrating Personal Rapid Transit Pods with Monorail, Walking, E-Bikes and Scooters-Skateboards, Bikes, Jogging and Walking
10% of Trip: First & Last Miles: AV-EV PRTs on Suburban and Urban Roads in Bike-Bus lanes, 90% of Trip: AI-Monorail Rapid Transit
MetaLoop with Pods
Utilising the Missing Third Dimension above Existing Roads & Rail — Filling an Urban Transit Evolutionary Niche
Light, Elegant, Filigree Tensegrity Structure with Integrated Solar PV, PRTs with Seamlessly Dual MonoRail and Street Modes
The Higher your Transit Mode, the Faster you Travel over Longer Distances in the Same (ideally 30min) Trip Times, via Beautiful Light Cable-Stay Masts
Renewable Energy Zones clustered around our cities, feeding new, stand-alone MetaLoop-integrated Renewables-only grids, like Leaves on a Grapevine
New Grid: 100% Renewables (Wind, Solar, Biomass, GeoThermal, Wave & Tide), with Integrated Pumped-Hydro-Air & Battery Storage: Generation and Distribution
Urban Farming & Parklets Between & In Buildings — plus, increasingly Large Rural Pesticide-free Biomes to allow Farm Land to Revert to Forest & Capture C02. Image features the Eden project; an iconic Grimshaw design that Asynsis principal, Nigel Reading worked on in London
Optimal Multi-Modal, 4th Industrial Revolution, Green New Deal Distribution Network for the 21st Century Smart Ecolivable City. Green Electrons and Light-Active Rapid Transit from REZs, Industrial-Data Zones, Vertical Farms, via our Suburbs, to our CBDs; efficiently moving people, light goods, data and fresh food.
Two Philosophies — 1. Economic — Doughnut Model: Staying within our Ecological & Social Limits 2. Physics of Complex Systems: Constructal Vascularisation
MetaLoop 100% Renewables Grid Rapidly Accelerates the Decarbonisation of our Civilisation by Transforming our Cities to Non-Fossil Fuels more Quickly
Recycling Materials Like Marine Plastics into MetaLoop PV Track Surfaces, via Public Private Partnerships — Allocating Surplus 5 Revenue Profits to Social Spending via Blockchain Apps (nominated as preferred by the Commuters), and by the MetaLoop Operator
Beautiful Sailing Yacht Cable Stay and Net Structure, inspired by Nature, Hong Kong Spin, Frei Otto and the Scientia Building, UNSW, by FJMTstudio.com
Masters Engineering Case Study, Mark Watson RMIT-tutor Mentored, Supervised at Deakin university; concludes MetaLoop (even with 1 revenue stream), is Viable. So with 5 revenue streams, it promises to be highly profitable, with a rapid ROI (also thanks to lower capital costs due to modular, pre-fabricated above ground construction, with minimal services and traffic disruption and expedited construction times), with scope for surplus social & ecological spending by applying the Doughnut model and increasing urban Constructal vascularisation. Future R&D pending with various academic and consultant partners

Scenario 3: Seamless mobility

Now for a third possibility: What if cities encourage the use of shared AVs through regulation and incentives? That would make it possible for residents to “mix and match” rail transit and low-cost, point-to-point autonomous travel in robo-taxis, autonomous shuttles, and autonomous buses easily.

Our analysis suggests that pooled AV shuttles could grab 25 percent of the market (twice as much as in the unconstrained-autonomy scenario), and private cars and privately used robo-taxis could provide about 30 percent of passenger-kilometers in 2030, compared with 35 percent for private cars today.

McKinsey predict up to 50% of all transit by 2030 could be by a MetaLoop-enabled system — and it could be even more with our light bridges over existing roads-rail lines, which means no traffic jams, traffic lights, bus and train queues to endure; because ML pods like the at-grade only Zoox, pick commuters up and drop them off door to door with a safe, private AV-EV trip, so the vast majority of most commutes are sailing non-stop, over existing road and rail routes.

The same logic applies to ML pods as drone delivery AVs, such as the at-grade only Nuro prototype.

Existing Metro Rail and Tram routes are largely radial, with diminishing returns as they get further out from City centres.

The key advantage of the more distributed and connected MetaLoop routes is that it’s more natural & fractal, multi-scale flow geometry with the greatest surface area coverage for the least resources-energy, which best mitigates the radial diminishing-returns effect as you travel further out from the central locus of the radial routes.

Optimal MetaLoop Constructal Energy-Resource Flows into Most Efficient Possible Fractal Network Forms
MetaLoop Circulation Schematic — with Ramps, Kiosks, Parklets and Urban Farming

So MetaLoop confers the advantages of Private Vehicle privacy-personalisation, seamless point to point service, and full destinational choice (but without traffic jams and intersections that force stopping & delays); but also has the advantages of Public Transport in being most rapid, yet without the disadvantages of either, in that there are no stops nor stations, with virtually no queues.

Wuppertal Suspension Railway

An example of a public transit-only solution which is always in monorail mode (without the additional mode of AV pods ramping up & down from rail to ground, delivering at-grade A to B, seamless point to point transit — as MetaLoop does), is the revolutionary, congestion-busting Wuppertal hanging railway, built in 1902, which exists to this day.

As shared on Twitter


Mass transit, over the river along a narrow valley.

What MetaLoop does is use existing roads and rail routes as “urban valleys”, utilising the unused Z-axis — Overground, for personal mass-transit, as an optimal hybrid between the private and public domains.

Where the “Station Comes to You” and your dedicated trip is Express, with no Stops, Stations, Traffic Lights…just seamless Personalised Rapid Transit, allowing you more congestion-busting Time for your work or personal use, more quality time with colleagues, family and friends; yielding substantial, verifiable Well-being and Productivity benefits for both Individuals and Society, with collateral Political-Economic application benefits, thanks to the MetaLoop Public Private Partnership revenue-sharing, surplus-recycling, Doughnut/Circular Economy operating model.

Xiamen — Existing Transport Infrastructure Co-Location

So it’s the best of both, (Private & Public transport ), worlds, while having the optimal fractal structure for a fully integrated City Transit people and goods distribution network with numerous Urban Place-making opportunities such as the work of BAU, including for cafes, kiosks, parks, playgrounds, performance spaces, urban farming and biomes.

MetaLoop greenery can be rain-water autarkic — especially when the vegetated area is smaller than the area available for water collection.

So MetaLoop networks boost urban biodiversity, allow storage of storm-water for drought-periods, afford noise absorption through the plants, provide air purification, confer mental health benefits for urbanites (ever more important!), and provide grey-water utilisation/purification services to adjoining buildings through the greenery planter root systems.

Apartment buildings along Metaloop routes, such as the exemplary Nightingale apartment campuses in Melbourne, Adelaide & Sydney, could also act as Virtual Power Plants (VPPs), for their neighbourhoods if they became nodes for PPA utility scale renewable energy delivery from the Renewable Energy Zones (REZs), mushrooming up around our city peripheries.

That power would be delivered at high voltage from remote REZs to city-ringing mains lines and then via nodal transformers, stepped-down into conduited cables, integrated into the radial MetaLoop lines fanning out from the various city CBDs.

So delivering cheaper & greener energy to our cites faster and more easily (with a brand new, stand-alone green grid as part of the MetaLoop poles and bridges infrastructure ); than is otherwise possible with the piecemeal-upgrading of our existing poles and wires.

Each nodal MetaGrid could therefore also be revenue-generating for their subscriber-participants, allowing local battery storage and blockchain trading within & between neighbourhood VPP-microgrids, via the likes of PowerLedger to leverage the peaks and troughs of demand/supply and consequent pricing (while also solving the Duck Curve and Curtailment issues currently holding back further renewable energy infrastructure investment and roll-out).

Renewable Energy Zones, via the Climate Council
REZs in New South Wales, Australia
Greenery — Extruded Linear Trees — plus Solar & Wind Electricity from REZs outside our Cities re-wired to our Homes, Workplaces & Leisure Spaces
REZs in Victoria, Australia
Curtin Placemaking

This is the killer app of MetaLoop, saving us City-dwellers that most precious commodity of all — our quality time, and at a highly-affordable cost with minimal roll-out times and existing services and traffic disruption due to its modular prefabricated, above-ground nature.

Spiral Ramps with Landscaping

Think of MetaLoop as “the station comes to you”, as the fastest possible A-B trip time, and as the best of both worlds; combining private car convenience and privacy with mass transit speed and efficiency.

At least 50% MetaLoop-enabled (AV-EV PRT Pods & Walk-Bikes-Scoots) Seamless Mobility by 2030, and even more (up to 90%) with MetaLoop Bridges over existing Road & Rail — because MetaPods then offer the most convenient, fastest-possible A-B Trip Times.

It’s not just autonomous vehicles that would make the difference. Intelligent traffic systems, advanced rail signaling, and connectivity-enabled predictive maintenance would all boost network reliability. Seamless mobility could improve performance on all five indicators that characterize a transit system: availability, affordability, efficiency, convenience, and sustainability. It could accommodate up to 30 percent more passenger-kilometers (availability) while reducing average time per trip by 10 percent (efficiency). It could cost 25 to 35 percent less per trip (affordability), increase the number of point-to-point trips by 50 percent (convenience), and, if AVs are electric, lower GHG emissions by up to 85 percent (sustainability).

McKinsey, The Road To Seamless Mobility 2019

Reference Sources (MetaLoop: seamless mobility potential for 50% of Urban Transit by 2030) on McKinsey Seamless Mobility and World Economic Forum Fourth Industrial Revolution defined as the MetaLoop-exemplifying novel combination of existing and new technologies.

The key question then is, what would be more efficient for our cities — exclusively ceding this new transit & revenue stream created by AI, 5G & AVs only to the likes of Uber, Lyft & Tesla — or optimising city decongestion and decarbonising capability by building Public Private Partnership MetaLoop networks as exemplary Keynsian growth-catalysing projects where a state transit authority builds and runs the MetaLoop poles and bridges, while the likes of Tesla or Volkswagen build and operate the MetaPods?

Which will save more commuter time, generate more development value, increase economic productivity, while also supporting social cohesion and decarbonising our cities most quickly (following the Doughnut Economics model), thereby serving as ideal Green New Deal platforms that comprehensively address many of the key urban-design related UN Sustainable Development Goals, which best serve as performance metrics for our public-private stakeholders - as we (following the compelling science evidence and leadership), necessarily decarbonise our civilisation most swiftly and efficiently?

Future Cities CRC — Deakin & UNSW supporting MetaLoop
Asynsis partners Design Thinkers Group — Providing Solution Consulting to our Public-Private MetaLoop Stakeholders
Breaking Point, by Peter Seamer — ex-Arup and CEO of Planning Victoria

MetaLoop follows Constructal rules for optimal growth (from the Physics Of Life by Adrian Bejan):

Growth “The snowflake has one kind of architecture… which is predictable provided that we recognize two principles: what flows (heat flows), and the natural tendency of all flows to configure and reconfigure themselves into architectures that provide easier access”.

A Distributed Flow System Exemplar — Laniakea

The TED-Conferences-shared, Peer-reviewed, Published Constructal Physics-based Design Theory of Everything and Asynsis Design Practice (with Hong Kong Spin Example and HK EcoLivable City FB page); the Talk behind the MetaLoop Walk”:





Architect+Designer, Complexity geometer, Sustainability advocate, TEDx speaker, Asynsis principle: More for Less, Form follows Flow